An assessment is basically an estimate of what a piece of property is worth. This valuation of the property helps decide what part of the local property tax levy will be billed to the property. Once this has been determined, the value is multiplied by the tax rates, sometimes known as the “mill rate,” to determine how much tax the owner must pay on that piece of property. Many states use full market value (or a fraction of it) as a basis for their assessments.
Assessors “value” property for tax appraisal purposes. “Value” is also known as the following:
- Actual value
- Appraisal value
- Fair and reasonable market value
- Fair cash value
- Full and fair value
- Full value
- Just value
- Market value
- True value
Despite these similar terms, most states focus on “market value.” Market value is the amount of money a typical, knowledgeable, buyer (unrelated to the seller) would pay for a given parcel of property. To calculate the market value of a piece of property, an assessor will determine if there have been changes in the real estate market where the property is situated. The assessor will examine what different types of property are selling for, local construction costs, normal operating expenses like utilities, nearby rental rates, and inflation. Changes in these factors may change the assessed value of the property.